Pencil sketch


The torso’s muscles influence the appearance of a person in numerous ways. The torso’s muscles, along with muscles in the legs and arms can create the appearance of a slim or athletic individual.

The muscles in the abdomen and back help to maintain the spine in its correct position and act as a reliable shield for abdominal organs. The chest muscles aid in making different moves with the arms and they also play a role in breathing, which sets the chest into motion.

We examine the specifics of plastic anatomy, which is, the form of anatomical structures which form the contours of the body. So, in this article, we’ll demonstrate the muscles superficial in the chest, back, and abdominal region.

Pectoral Muscles

The pectoral muscles can be divided into two parts: superficial and deep. The superficial pectoral muscle is attached to bones in the upper leg. The muscles are able to move the arm. The muscles that are deep are located between the ribs and are responsible for moving the ribcage, assisting in the ability to breathe.

Pectoralis Major

The most prominent pectoral muscle is the pectoralis major. The muscle of the surface layer is located under the skin and therefore is extremely visible to athletes. Just a little more lateral and higher than the pectoralis major muscle lies the deltoid muscles of the shoulder. Below, there are abdominal muscles as well as an anterior vertebral muscle called the serratus.

The pectoralis major muscle begins from the clavicle. We will now look at what the rectus abdominal sheath does. Remember that all the muscles that are superficial to the chest support the bone structure of the upper leg.


Serratus Anterior Muscle

The long portions of this muscle protect the ribs. It’s a robust muscle that lies in the middle, which means you can observe the serratus anterior muscles in people who are athletic and have only a tiny amount of subcutaneous fat. One of the most significant features that differentiate the serratus anterior muscle from other muscles that are associated with the ribs is the position of the muscle components right above the ribs and not in between them. The anterior muscle of the serratus begins on the outside of 1-9 ribs. It is connected to the lower corner and medial edge of the scapula.


Muscles of the Back

The back muscles are a large set of muscles. The principal functions are to control the movement of the spine and to keep the spine in a straight posture. The muscles of the back in humans have grown robustly as a result of standing upright. The muscles in the back are located in many layers. We will only take out the muscles that create the shape of the body.

Trapezius Muscle

If we study the shapes of both muscles it is clear that we have the shape of an oblong. The muscle of the trapezius is situated underneath the skin. It’s evident when you pull your back, lift your shoulders, or turn your head slightly. This muscle can be seen even who have a normal body.

The muscle of the trapezius originates at the occipital bone of the skull. This is a wide muscle, actually. The muscle attaches to the scapula’s acromion, and the spine runs through the scapula and to the acromion on the clavicle.

Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

The latissimus muscles encompass all the back part of your torso, similar to the corset. In athletes, this muscle is visible from all angles, even from the front. The areas are called wings. The latissimus dorsi muscles that are developed together with the deltoid muscle and pectoralis major muscles create an attractive male body with a broad upper body and a narrow pelvis.


The latissimus dorsi muscles strengthen the torso and participate in breathing exercises, as well as turn the shoulder. The latissimus dorsi muscle is well-known among people who exercise because it is the muscle that performs you are pulling up on a bar that is horizontal.

Erector Spinae Muscles

The muscles that straighten the spine are powerful and massive, which is why we can observe them in living people. They are linked to the mastoid bone process, the occipital bone as well as the transverse process of overlying vertebrae.

The muscle which straightens the spine holds the vertebral column upright position.  Additionally, this muscle plays a role in breathing, which sets the chest into motion.

Abdominal Muscles

Abdominal muscles can be classified into three categories: anterior, lateral, and posterior. For the purpose of plastic anatomy, 2 muscles play special importance. They form the front and the lateral wall.

Rectus Abdominis Muscle

This muscle resembles an extended, wide strap that runs across the pubic symphysis all the way to the angle of the coastal. All along its length, the rectus abdominal muscle is joined by several bridges. This is the way that rectangular areas form, and are known as abs.

The rectus abdominal muscles originate from the pubic symphysis. It connects to the cartilage surface of the lower ribs, which is 7 in number. The role of the rectus abdominal muscle is to flex the spinal column. While the body is still the rectus abdomins muscles elevate the legs, bringing them closer to your body. This is a frequent abdominal workout.

Abdominal External Oblique Muscle

The external oblique muscles of the abdomen begin from the outside of the lower ribs, which are eight and are literally intertwined between the anterior serratus muscle. This is further emphasized the convexity and ease of the serratus anterior muscles.

The portion in the external oblique muscles which extends between these bony structures is known as the ligament of inguinal. In this image, you observe the muscle rectus abdominals in the background, surrounded by the muscles of the abdominal region:

Chest Topography

Chest Regions

Topographically, the chest is divided into the anterior and posterior walls. Anatomists often do not view the back region as a separate entity that is divided into the chest’s back wall as well as the wall behind the abdomen.

Presternal Region

The pre-sternal region’s boundaries region align with the borders of the sternum.

Pectoral Region

In athletes, The borders of the pectoral area coincide with the borders of the pectoralis muscle. The most reliable markers for the pectoral zone are:

  • The upper edge of the clavicle — the upper border
  • Lower edge, or the sixth rib the lower border
  • The outer edge of the sternum is the medial border
  • Deltoid-thoracic groove with the lateral border.

Substernal Region

Substernal regions are bounded by:

  • Above by the 6th Above – through the 6th (in athletes this line of sight is akin to the Pectoralis Major Muscle);
  • Bottom – under the arch at the coastal end;
  • Medial – along the side of the sternum.
  • Laterally – through the middle of the axillary line.

Scapular Region

The scapular region is bounded by three boundaries.

  • Top – is in line with the upper edge that runs across the chest (see above);
  • Lower – A vertical line runs along the lower part of the scapula.
  • Medial – a line that runs through part of the scapula’s medial edges.

Subscapular Region

The scapular region is bounded by these boundaries

  • Upper – a line that runs through the lower part of the scapula.
  • Lower The 12th rib is the lower
  • Medial The paravertebral line
  • Lateral – The middle axillary line.

Vertebral Region

The vertebral area has these boundaries

  • Top – is in line with the upper edge that runs across the chest (see above)
  • Lateral lines – the paravertebral ones.


Abdominal regions

The abdomen’s borders.

Above the abdomen, it is bound with the inner edges of the 10th pair of ribs. From below the abdomen, it is bounded by the pelvis. The border that is conditional between the abdomen and the pelvis is known as the terminal line that we can’t observe in a living individual.

An anterior abdominal wall can be divided into 3 parts epigastrium and mesogastrium and hypogastrium. To determine the boundaries between these areas, it is necessary to draw two standard horizontal lines. The upper line runs through the lowest point on the 10th pair and the lower by the spina iliaca superior. This means that the upper part is called the epigastrium, while the middle is the mesogastrium and the lower one is the hypogastrium.

The upper edge of the lumbar area is that portion of the lower 12th rib and the lower boundary of the lumbar region is called the iliac region. The iliac crest.




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