The body is composed of numerous caverns, the contents of which also support muscles and bones. These cavities include:

Chest cavity;

Pelvic major/pelvis minor cavity;

Abdominal cavity.



The chest cavity’s skeleton is created from the thorax (the rib cage). The pelvic skeleton can be formed from the pelvic bone, sacrum, and tailbone. Pelvic bones are what we will study in a separate article on the lower extremities. The abdominal cavity lacks bone support, other than the spine.

Rib Cage

It is the robust bone structure that is where it is where the chest cavity situated. The chest cavity is made up of bones foundation (rib cage) and a variety of muscles. Chest cavity walls are lined by an extremely strong and gliding connective tissue known as pleura, which is located and surrounded by pleura from the inside.


The rib cage shields the damage to important chest cavity organs such as the lungs, heart, and bronchi, as well as the esophagus and thymus, as well as being the biggest vessels and nerve trunks that are important. In addition, this bone structure shields organs located in the abdomen’s upper part, particularly the liver.


The rib cage is characterized by an appearance reminiscent of a cone that is truncated. The lower and upper chest openings are known as the inferior and superior apertures. The lower part of the chest area is enclosed by diaphragms – an extremely strong muscle that takes part in breathing. It also divides the chest abdominal cavity from the chest.


The chest does nothing more than providing protection. The elastic joints between the chest’s bones – the sternum and ribs allow the chest to expand when inhaling and then shrink when exhaling. The rib cage is created by the sternum, ribs, and vertebrae in the thoracic spine.



The sternum is a flat and solid bone that connects the sides of the ribs. The sternum can be found: The sternum includes an internal corpus sternum (corpus sternum) and a xiphoid process as well as manubrium. On the body as well as the hilt of the sternum there are clips for connecting with the ribs known as the rib clippings (incisurae Costales).


The sternum also serves as additional support and fixing location for the upper part of the limb because it connects the clavicles. The clavicular nodes (incisura and clavicularis) in the manubrium.


A Rib is a flat, curving bone that connects to the sternum and vertebra. Every human has 12 pairs. The ribs are of a standard design, with only the two ribs that are in the beginning and end of pairs. These ribs differ from others foremost, they differ in terms of size and shape. The two ribs that first appear thinner and flatter.


Every rib is made up of cartilage and bone components. The longest part of the ribs is their bone portion. In this image, the cartilaginous portion of the ribs is colored blue. The bone part of the ribs isn’t colored. The bony portion of the rib is home to the head (caput costa) as well as the neck (collum costa) as well as the body (corpus costa). In fact, in anatomy, the majority of things with a head (i.e. the broad part) are incorporated into the neck (i.e. the narrow portion). Each rib is joined to the vertebrae, in the same way, using the head.

Seven pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum through the aid of the cartilaginous component which is why they are referred to as true ribs. The remaining three groups of ribs have been fused to the cartilaginous part with them, and they are referred to as false ribs. The lower two pairs of ribs are referred to as floating since they are connected only with the spinal column.


The relationship between the false lower ribs and the sternum can be described as the sternal angle. This is a crucial region in the plastic anatomy as its size is one of the indications of the body’s type. People who have a muscular body, with a slender shape, and who are inclined to gain weight and muscle, are known as hypersthenic. The sternal angle of hypersthenic is more than 90°.


Asthenic are thin, tall people. One of the indicators of an asthenic body has an acute sternal angle. In normal asthenic, the sternal angle can be as high as 90 degrees. Asthenic may gain weight. Then it is difficult to identify the kind of body, therefore the sternal angle can be an important measure of the shape of the figure. Vertebrae that enter the thoracic spine also form an integral part of the chest. We will discuss the thoracic spinal column as part of chapter 3 on the spine.


Spine (vertebral column)

The vertebral column provides a sturdy bone framework that is the most important supporting part of the entire body. The human spine is shaped with a special shape due to the verticality and directness that the skull is in.

The spine is composed of 33-34 vertebrae which are sturdy, flat bones, embedded in cartilage discs. They are also known as intervertebral discs. The fastening of vertebrae by discs, and the presence of additional components, such as ligaments and muscles, allows this bone column to become resilient and elastic, which helps absorb shocks and jumps during exercise, or lifting weights.

The vertebral column can be divided into several sections:

cervical (consists of seven vertebrae)

Thoracic (consists of 12 vertebrae)

The lumbar (consists of five vertebrae)

sacral (consists of five vertebrae)

coccygeal (5-4 vertebrae)

The spinal column isn’t anything like an even line. A representation of the spinal column as straight lines is a major error, in fact. If you examine the spine there are four physiological bends. That can be said to include four bends that are normal.

The first bend that we notice is within the neck region. The spine appears full of air. The forward bend of the spine is known as the lordosis. It is easy to remember this phrase by linking it to”lord” “lord” because if we raise the lordosis of our cervical spine, the head will exude pride and throw it back.

There is another turn in the thoracic area. The bend is referred to as Kyphosis. Kyphosis that is too strong can create the appearance of a stride. Kyphosis with the highest severity creates a “hump.

Further down, we find lordosis in the lumbar. Then, at the bottom of our spines, we can see the coccyx kyphosis.

Let’s examine the anatomy of one thoracic vertebra.

Thoracic Vertebra

The thoracic vertebrae tend to be larger than the cervical vertebrae. As they get closer to the lumbar region, they grow bigger.

The thoracic vertex, like the cervical vertebra, is comprised of a massive, dense vertebral structure (corpus vertebra) and an arch (arcus vertebra), and between them is the vertebral foramen (foramen vertebra). If the vertebrae are situated over each other and have holes, they form an arch through which the spinal cord is.

The Spine ous process of the thoracic vertebrae has a large size and is oriented downwards, overlapping each other in accordance with the concept of covering with tiles. The spinous processes of cervical vertebrae are well-shaped by the skin, particularly for people who are thin.

Articular processes are also evident within the cervical vertebrae. It is possible to see the upper and lower processes of articulation.

One of the most distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae is that they can articulate not just with one another as with other vertebrae however, they also articulate with the ribs. Thus, we can observe the zones that are meant to join ribs pits for the ribs.

On the vertebra’s body, from the lateral sides, there are coastal fossae the lower as well as upper (fovea costal superior and inferior). Every rib has articulated using the lower fossa of the underlying vertebra, and the fossa on the upper side of the underlying vertebra, with the exception of the first vertebra, known as the thoracic which is articulated using the first rib in totality, and half the heads of the second rib the fossa below. Additionally, the 11th and 12th vertebrae each have only one fossa of ribs.

If you view your vertebra sideways, you’ll find a deep notch in between the vertebral body and vertebral arch. This is called an incisura vertebral inferior.


Additionally, the ribs’ articulation is linked to the coastal fossae that are part of the process of articulation.

Lumbar Vertebra

The lumbar vertebrae are among the most massive and strong. They were made so during the evolution process because they are the lumbar vertebrae that are most susceptible to the stress of the body’s weight.

It is possible to compare the size of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae with the thoracic:

Each lumbar vertebra like all of the others has an internal verbal body (corpus vertebrae) and an arc of vertebrae (arcus vertebrae) and an articular foramen vertebral (foramen vertebrae) located between them.

This spinous procedure here is in place, however, it is very small and thickened. It is also rounded when compared to the spinous processes in the cervical and thoracic vertebrae.

The articular processes of the upper and lower (Processus articular superior and inferior) extend down and up in the arch of the vertebrae. By using these processes the overlying and underlying vertebrae become articulated.

But, we don’t find full transverse processes. Instead smaller processes coliforms (Processus coliforms) are situated laterally and constitute the ribs’ rudiments.


The trunk’s skeleton can also be represented through pelvic bones, which provide the foundation for the bony portion of the trunk. These pelvic bones are examined individually in the piece on anatomical anatomy for the lower legs.

In reality, drawing the skeleton can be a challenging task. The most frequent mistake made by new artists is their excessive focus on tiny details in the midst of serious issues with fundamental shape. It is important to master the art of sketching the shapes of the ribcage and the spine generally. Do not draw any detail that isn’t required at the start of the skeleton drawing process. Begin drawing the spinous processes or costal cartilage once you have confidence in drawing the basic figures.

Drawing the chest and spine is an essential thing. The curves of the spine and chest are the shape of the whole body, therefore, mistakes in the drawing of bones can impact the shape of the human body.



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