The lower limbs’ skeleton and the spinal column vertical is a unique and evolutionary tool that enabled a person to elevate his head over all living things living on earth. The lower leg skeleton consists of the cingulum member inferiors (the lower limbs’ bones belt) and skeleton members’ inferior’s liberals (that is the legs). The cingulum members’ inferiors are the pelvis’s bones that join the sacrum.
Lower limbs are divided into three parts: the thigh (femur) and the lower leg (tibia as well as fibula) and the foot. Bony main foot are ossa pedis.Let’s look at the various components that make up the lower leg Skeleton.
Lower Limbs Bones Belt
The belt of the lower limb is comprised of two bones in the pelvis (os coxae) both on the right and left, that are linked by the sacrum. Each pelvic bone comprises three additional bones (looks like the shape of a nesting doll). The pelvic bones have immense physiological importance. The pelvic bones are the cavity in the pelvis. It is where vital organs, large vessels, and the massive nerve trunks that supply the lower limb in all its entirety are situated.
Additionally, the pelvic bones play a role during the process of childbirth. It is crucial for gynecologists and obstetricians to be able to accurately determine the distance between various areas on the pelvic bones of women who are pregnant in order to anticipate problems that might develop during the childbirth process. Furthermore, the pelvis, as you know is the girdle of the lower legs. The pelvic bones support for lower limbs as well as connect the lower limbs as well as the spinal column. The pelvic bone comprises the ilium and ischium and the pubic bone. These three bones are linked with cartilage during childhood and as adolescents progress, they develop into one bone.
Each bone is made up of various components. For instance, the ilium comes with an ilium body as well as a wing. The ischium also has an issue and a branch while the pubis is a combination of two branches as well as a body. You can clearly see that every bonus has its own body, an extremely small, compact round area. The three bones enlarge to form the acetabulum, the joint between the pelvic bone as well as the femur’s rounded head.
It is a highly flexible and multi-functional hip joint. The female pelvis has a variety of different characteristics from the male pelvis. We will be focusing specifically on the two most prominent differences:
- The joint of the two pelvic bones front is referred to as the pubic Symphysis. For males, the pubic symphysis creates an acute angle and for women, it forms an Obtuse angle.
- The ilium’s wings in males are narrow and vertical. For women, the ilium’s wings expand and the pelvis is visually larger.
It is essential to know the specifics of the person you draw. The pelvis of women is usually bigger and wider. This is particularly evident when compared to the size of the shoulders. A typical male body is characterized by broad shoulders and a smaller pelvis. The female has the opposite.
The Femur (or its thigh bone) is among the strongest and largest bones found in the human body. The femur articulates with the pelvic bone at its most proximal point and with the shin (tibia) at the distal end. There is a large, rounded protrusion on the proximal side of the femur. This is the femur’s head (caput Femoris). This design allows for maximizing mobility in the hip joint.
The femur’s attachment to the pelvis is an aesthetically different form in males and women. When you look at the male skeleton, you will observe that the body and head of the femur create an angle that is close to the angle of right. A more obtuse angle is typical of female skeletons. This can affect the shape of women’s hips. It is because of this characteristic that female hips appear wider and more round.
The femur’s head moves into a narrower area called the neck of the Femur (collum of the femoris). Also, you can see the bony protrusion, which is situated laterally. It is called known as the larger trochanter (trochanter major) in which the thigh muscles join. There is a smaller protrusion known as less trochanter (trochanter minor) that is located more medially. It is also the place where the muscles of the thigh join.
The major component of the femur is known as the femur body (caput femoris). The body is expanded downwards and develops into the medial epicondyle (epicondyles medials) and the lateral epicondyle (epicondyles laterals). These are tiny elevations that are situated above the articular surface that is found on the femur. The surfaces of the articular are called condyles. You can observe it when we examine the femur from below.
Patellas are tiny but hefty bone that is one of the bones in the joint of the knee. The patella is held in place by the muscles of the thigh and is a protective covering for the knee joint that ensures it is more stable and prevents unneeded moves in the medial as well as the lateral directions.
The patella is also connected to the ligaments of the cruciate that add stabilization to the knee joint. The patella is comprised of an apex, a base, and two sides. The tiny bone appears to be an unfinished stone with an edge that is distinct on the other side.
The tibia is a large, sturdy bone that joins four bones simultaneously. The proximal part of the tibia connects to the femur and the distal portion is joined by the talus of the foot. On the side, that is lateral the fibula joins the tibia. Like all tubular bones, the tibia is a tubular bone with an internal body (corpus tibiae) as well as two ends – the lower and upper. The strong body of the tibia expands upwards, forming two condyles that join with the femur (condyles medial/condyles laterals).
In the lower part, the body of the tibia increases but not as much. We are able to see a tiny protrusion that is rounded on one side, and an un-flat surface on the opposite. The protrusion with a rounded shape is known as the medial malleolus and it is the fovea that allows for the articulation of the fibula. On the medial aspect of the region that is highlighted with pink, it is called the incisura fibularis.
The tibia’s trihedral shape for the majority of its length. In the front, the edge of the tibia (margo prior) is contoured by the skin. It is also possible to feel it quickly. In addition, Muay Thai fighters (a popular type of strike martial art) utilize the shin for armor, shielding themselves from being hit and opening the sharp front edges of the tibia for a strike.
The structure of the fibula won’t be an issue since this bone is a body with an upper and a lower one. The fibula’s body is smaller than the tibia. The proximal portion of the fibula is round on the outside, which is known as the fibula’s head. In the middle, there is a small depression to allow articulation with the tibia.
The lower portion of the fibula creates the lateral malleolus. It appears like an oval bump. If you take a look at the fibula it is possible to think that the lateral is designed to articulate by the tibia. Actually, the malleolus’ lateral articulation is to the sole’s talus. The articulation of the tibia tends to be higher.
A thick connective tissue layer is found between the tibia as well as the fibula. Alongside this membrane, a number of muscles are situated between the bones and also between them. This is the way the fibula and tibia appear on a cut horizontally in the mid-shin
The foot of the human being is a unique design that was created to allow running as well as jumping and walking using two legs. The foot is comprised of bones that make up the tarsus metatarsus, as well as phalanges that form the toes. The tarsus bone comprises two rows of bone. The proximal row contains the calcaneus and talus. The distal row comprises the cuboid, and scaphoid along with three bone wedges.
The calcaneus and talus are extremely sturdy and have strong bones. The talus is held below by two tibial bones that form an ankle joint. The tibia wraps around the sides of the ankles, lateral and medial in a fork-like fashion. Alongside the two tibias, the talus also articulates with the calcaneus along with the cuboid and scaphoid bones. If you examine the calcaneus you instantly notice a huge bump that is shaped into the shape of a slight curve. This design, which is reinforced by ligaments and muscles, allows us to leap from a height that is sufficient and to run at a fast pace without causing injury to the bone of our upper leg, or the spine.
If we move further distal, we can see five metatarsal bones and toe bones. Toe bones are referred to as Phalanges. Every toe, excluding the first one, has three phalanges: distal, proximal, and middle. The largest toe is comprised of the distal and distal phalanges. The metatarsal bones are extremely significant. They are the ones that create the distinctive bent foot, also known as the arch. This bend is required to absorb shocks from jumps and other shocks. This is particularly evident when we examine the foot’s profile:
The metatarsus’s bones along with the phalanges of toes, don’t have any special names. They are just numbered in the direction that runs from the metatarsus on the big toe up to the metatarsus on the small toe.