In this article, we will provide you with information on the anatomy of our lower legs. This is an extremely important issue for artists since the posture of the legs determines the posture and appearance of the person.

Muscles of the Girdle of the Lower Limbs

The muscles are split into deep and superficial. The deeper muscles aren’t crucial to our anatomy but we’ll definitely look at certain superficial muscles.

Gluteus Maximus Muscle

This muscle is rounded and raised. It creates the contour of the pelvis’s back. The muscle is particularly formed in gymnasts and powerlifters. The gluteus maximus muscle is the most superficial muscle among the pelvic muscles. It is located under the skin and in the adipose tissue.

The gluteus maximus muscle originates from the back side of all bones in the pelvic girdle, and also through the tendon in the spinal erectors. The connection point of it is in the gluteal tuberosity of the femur as well as the iliotibial tract.


Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle

The muscle is located in the most lateral position among all muscle groups being studied at present. It is possible to see a tiny muscle bundle that combines into a huge tendon structure, called fascia Lata (iliotibial tract).

It is interspersed into the iliotibial tract that connects with the knee joint.

Thigh Muscles

The muscles of the thigh are split into muscles of the back, front and medial groups.

Front Group

Quadriceps Femoris Muscle

It is the biggest of the muscles of the thighs. As you can tell from the name the quadriceps muscle is comprised of four different parts. Each quadriceps muscle has its own name.

The components of the quadriceps muscles of the thigh come from various places. It is attached to the tubercle of the tibia. The patella is situated within the tissue of the tendon.

Rectus Femoris

The muscle is located in the upper thigh. Rectus femoris muscles begin with an elongated and thin tendon that originates from the spine iliaca prior superior (pelvis). The tendon then passes through a large, powerful muscle layer, which shrinks at the knee joint.

Vastus Medialis

The quadriceps muscles are located posterior to the rectus fascia. A small part of the vastus muscle can be covered with the rectus muscle. From below the muscle, the fibers of the vastus medialis muscles are tied in the common tendon of the quadriceps muscles.

Vastus Lateralis

The quadriceps muscle lies in the lateral direction of the rectus muscle and covers the anterolateral side of the thigh. The muscle that is lateral to it is protected ahead by the rectus fascia muscle. Furthermore, this muscle is surrounded by the fascia lata (iliotibial tract). The vast lateral begins at the trochanter Major of the Femur as well as is located along the intertrochanteric lines. As with all the other components of the quadriceps muscle the vastus lateralis muscle is inserted through the common tendon and is attached to the tibial tubercle.

Back Group

Biceps Femoris Muscle

The biceps fascia has two parts: a short and long. The short portion is situated beneath the long one which is why it’s not considered in the anatomy of plastic. The long part is the most lateral part of the backside. The long part is derived at the ischial tuberosity and is attached to the fibula’s caput.

Semitendinosus Muscle

The muscle is a long stretched strap that runs across the medial side of the thigh’s back. The muscle of the semitendinosus is just below the skin and is partially overlapping the muscle of the semimembranosus. This muscle begins from the ischial tuberosity. It connects to the tibial tuberosity.

The biceps and semitendinosus muscles create an attractive arch-like silhouette. This is particularly evident when the person is stretched to the maximum height.

Shin Muscles

The shin is the area of the leg situated in between knee joints and feet. The bone that runs along the shin’s base is composed of the tibia and fibula. The shin muscles regulate the movement of the foot and toes. We will concentrate on the superficial muscles which form the shin’s contours.

Anterior Calf Muscle Group

The muscles are situated on the front of the shin. They extend the toes and foot.

Tibialis Anterior Muscle

It is a large and strong muscle. The anterior tibial muscles form the contour of the anterior side that runs down the leg. The muscle is able to fill the space that runs from the lateral border of the tibia.

The anterior tibial muscle originates from the lateral condyle, and from the upper portion of the lateral portion of the tibia. It then stretches downwards into a long, thin tendon that attaches to the plantar portion of the sphenoid bone’s medial side and to the first metatarsal bone’s base.

Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle

The muscle is situated next to the tibialis posterior muscular on the medial side. The extensor longus digitorum is a muscle that is slightly smaller that runs in the leg’s lower part. In the lower leg, the extensor digital forum longus is divided into four thin, long tendons that split with the fingers of the opposite fingers. They connect with the distal phalanges.

The tendons of the extensordigitorum longus clearly appear to be contoured beneath the skin as the muscle contract.


Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscle

The extensor hallucislongus begins from the medial side of the lower two-thirds of the fibula.



Back Muscle Group of the Shin

This category includes the strongest and most prominent muscles of the shin. Shin muscles in the back are found in multiple layers. We’ll learn about the largest and smallest of them.

Triceps Surae Muscle

It is, however, an extremely wide and large muscle, with multiple parts. It also forms all posterior as well as an anterior parts of the lower leg. The triceps muscles are composed of three components, each with its own unique name. The focus will be on two of them which are less superficial.

Gastrocnemius Muscle

It is the name used for two massive, large muscles situated in the lower leg’s back. You can distinguish the medial and lateral components of the muscle. If the gastrocnemius muscles are adequately developed, we will notice the beautiful contours of the lower legs, with an obvious diminution to the front.

The primary function of the gastrocnemius muscles is to allow the foot to move. This muscle’s function is evident when you see professional ballet dancers during those instances when they stand in a stance on their feet.

The gastrocnemius’ lateral head muscle is located on the outside of the epiphysis lower of the femur. The medial head begins from the surface of the popliteal above the medial condyle of the femur.

In between the medial and lateral parts of the triceps muscular that run down the lower leg, there is an elongated, flat muscle known as the soleus. The soleus muscle isn’t apparent unless the medial or head lateral are removed, therefore we will not discuss this muscle in great detail.

Achilles Tendon

The Achilles tendon can be described as a muscle through which the 3 heads of the triceps muscles from the lower leg enter. It connects to the heel and hence is often referred to as the heel tendon. The story behind the name of this tendon has a connection to the story of the Trojan War, more precisely it is associated with the myth of one of the supposed participants. Is Achilles was one of the major combatants of the Greeks who (according to the myths of Homer) was the one who sacked Troy.

Achilles’ mother goddess Thetis took her small son in the water that flowed from The Styx River. The result was that the future hero had the complete protection he needed. But, as he bathed, Thetis held Achilles by the heel. In this heel, in the time one of their final fights prior to the fall of Troy, Achilles was mortally injured at the hands of Trojan the prince of Paris.

In honor of this old legend, the heel tendon has been named”the Achilles tendon.

Muscles of the Foot

We will only study those muscles located on the surface since they are the muscles that are essential in anatomical plasticity.

Muscles of the Rear of the Foot

The muscles at the back part of your foot play a role in extending the toes. They are located beneath the muscles that connect the muscles of the leg anterior. They actually, perform their functions.

Extensor Digitorum Brevis Muscle

It is a large muscle, which is broad and splits into four parts. Each section is oriented to the respective finger and then transforms into a thin, long tendon that attaches to the proximal portion of the finger. The muscle begins at the surface of the bone that is located in the heel.

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Muscle

There are normally separate muscles that are responsible for the thumb. In this instance, there is also the specific muscle that controls the expansion of the toes big. The extensor hallucis is Brevis begins at the top of the calcaneus.

Plantar Aponeurosis

Most muscles in the group are located below the plantar Aponeurosis. It is a robust connective tissue that is located beneath the skin. It is separated into bundles that correspond to fingers.

The plantar Aponeurosis comprises three huge connective tissue bundles, which are perpendicularly linked with the fascia transverse of the sole. The connective tissues of five bundles run from this point to the fingers.


Lower Limb Topography

Lower limbs are surrounded by the abdominal area and the back. The border that separates the lower limb from the abdomen is called the inguinal ligament. The border that separates the lower and back limbs is drawn along the iliac crest as well as the annex of the coccyx.


Lower Limb Regions

Gluteal Region

The gluteal area is related to the gluteus maximus muscles.

Thigh Region

The thigh region is divided into two surfaces. The front is bordered in the upper part by the inguinal ligament and below, by a horizontal line about 3-5 centimeters over the patella.

Knee Region

The posterior portion of the knee is the borders of the fossa popliteal. The popliteal fossa is a diamond-shaped structure. The popliteal fossa is bound from above laterally by the biceps femoris muscle, from the top medially by the muscle of the semimembranosus below by the medial and lateral portions of the gastrocnemius muscles.

Shin Region

The front portion that runs down the leg’s lower part is divided in the upper part by a line that runs through the tuberosity in the tibia and lowers by a line that runs through the ankles’ bases.

The posterior part is located in the lower leg and is divided into the upper part through an annular line that runs through the tuberosity of the tibia and lowers by a line that runs through the ankles’ bases.

Ankle Region

This is the area of the ankle joint.

Foot Region

The foot region is divided in the middle by the line that connects the lower edges of the ankles of both.

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